How It Works

Our "How it Works" series is a convenient way to learn about commonly referenced hardware in transportation and industrial equipment.

Browse the posts below for easy-to-understand articles, videos, graphics and more.

Plug-In Hybrids (PHEV)

With an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, plug-in hybrid vehicles offer improved fuel efficiency and better emissions performance than non-hybrid counterparts.

Learn about PHEVs

Dual Clutch Transmissions

Dual clutch transmissions (DCTs) combine the efficiency of a manual transmission with the convenience of an automatic transmission.

Learn about dual clutch transmissions

Manual Transmissions

How does a manual transmission operate and what are the lubrication needs for this equipment?

Learn about manual transmissions

Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Get the details on the HEV called a full hybrid-electric vehicle or self-charging hybrid.

Learn about full hybrid electric vehicles

Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Learn about the least electrified of hybrid electric vehicles, the Mild HEV.

Learn about mild hybrid electric vehicles

Automatic Transmissions

Learn about the inner workings of fully automatic transmissions and explore their advantages, challenges, and lubrication needs.

Learn about automatic transmissions

Metalworking Additives

Modern metalworking fluids depend on a wide range of additives that collectively optimize the performance of the fluid to protect the workpiece and the tooling.

Learn about metalworking additives

Hydraulic Pumps

Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy to fluid power by pushing and moving fluid

Learn about hydraulic pumps

Hydraulic Systems

Today's hydraulic systems work longer and harder than ever before. Find out how.

Learn how hydraulic systems work

The Types of Metalworking Fluids

Metalworking fluids differ in their composition, and knowing the right fluid for the applications is key for workpiece quality and productivity

Learn about various types of metalworking fluids

The Role of a Metalworking Fluid

Most cutting operations use a metalworking fluid to reduce friction between the tool and workpiece surface while also cooling the tool

Learn about metalworking fluids

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an emission control technology that reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines

Learn about this emission-control technology

Four-stroke Premix Oil and Fuel Engines

Four-stroke premix engines combine a four-cycle engine design with the lubrication elements of a two-stroke.

Learn about this engine technology


Getting metal parts to fit exact specifications takes specialized equipment.

Learn about turning, milling and hole-making operations

What is selective catalytic reduction? (SCR)

Selective catalytic reduction, or SCR, is an active emissions control process used to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide emissions from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles and equipment

Learn about SCR here

How do diesel and gasoline particulate filters work?

Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are two types of emission control technologies used in vehicles to reduce the amount of harmful particulate matter released into the air.

Learn about DPFs and GPFs here

What is a four-stroke gasoline engine?

Four-stroke gasoline engines are the most prevalent internal combustion engines on the market today. Found in automobiles, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, and other equipment types, they work by converting chemical energy from gasoline into mechanical energy.

Learn about a four stroke engine here

PFI vs GDI Engines

Faced with demands for greater fuel economy, consumer engine manufacturers innovate continuously to balance efficiency with performance. Unsurprisingly, there's an intense focus on fuel injection systems to address these needs. And all that focus has led to one of the most prevalent engine hardware trends: the growing use of gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology over traditional port fuel injected (PFI) designs.

Learn about PFI vs GDI here

Industrial Gearboxes

Industrial gearboxes are used to change speed, direction, and torque, usually between a motor and a shaft that drives equipment.

Learn about industrial gearboxes here

Industrial Gearbox Gear Types

Industrial gearbox gears transfer power between a system and allow for a wide variety of speeds/loads to be achieved for a fixed range of input speed/loads. They come in many unique designs and materials depending on the application.

Learn about industrial gearbox gear types here

Industrial Gearbox Bearings

Industrial gearbox bearings support rotating shafts used to transfer power while minimizing friction. Bearings come in two main categories: journal bearings and rolling element bearings.

Learn about the various types of gearbox bearings and their lubricant needs

Two-Stroke Engines vs. Four-Stroke Engines

The value of two-stroke and four-stroke engines is rooted in their applications.

Get a short overview of two-stroke and four-stroke engines, their key similarities, differences and common applications here