Unlike a passenger car, which has separate lubrication systems to serve the needs of engine and transmission, a 4-stroke motorcycle has a more compact and complex design that relies on the same oil to lubricate engine, clutch and gearbox. This places tremendous stresses on the oil, and demands different performance characteristics compared with oils developed for passenger. This is especially true when it comes to the wet clutch assembly, where the friction modifiers used in traditional passenger car oils can cause excessive slippage. This compromises the efficiency of power transfer to the transmission system leading to a significant loss of available power and adversely affecting emissions. In addition, higher engine speeds and higher power densities coupled with compact engine design leads to higher operating temperatures in motorcycles. That's why dedicated motorcycle oils have become an essential component of a global approach towards controlling emissions.